La dernière bataille des caciques (FICTION) (French Edition)
Still a priest, rather than a man, he thought of his ministry, and, for the last time, heard the. Such was the edifying and holy death of the illustrious explorer of the Mississippi, on Saturday, the 18th of May, He was of a cheerful, joyous disposition, playful even in his manner, and universally beloved. His letters show him to us a man of education, close observation, sound sense, strict integrity, a freedom from exaggeration, and yet a vein of humor which here and there breaks out, in spite of all his self-command.
But all these qualities are little compared to his zeal as a missionary, to his sanctity as a man. His holiness drew on him in life the veneration of all around him, and the lapse of years has not even now destroyed it in the descendants of those who knew him. In one of his sanctity, we naturally. Like St. Francis Xavier, whom he especially chose as the model of his missionary career, he labored nine years for the moral and social improvement of nations sunk in paganism and vice, and as he was alternately with tribes of varied tongues, found it was necessary to acquire a knowledge of many American languages; six he certainly spoke with ease; many more he is known to have understood less perfectly.
His death, however, was as he had always desired, more like that of the apostle of the Indies; there is, indeed, a striking resemblance between their last moments, and the wretched cabin, the desert shore, the few destitute companions, the lonely grave, all harmonize in Michigan and Sancian.
He was buried as he had directed on a rising ground near the little river, and a cross raised above his grave showed to all the place of his rest. The Indians soon knew it, and two years after his death, and almost on the very anniversary. There he still reposes, for I find no trace of any subsequent removal; vague tradition, like that of his death as given by Charlevoix and others, would indeed still place him at the mouth of his river; but it is certain that he was transferred to the church of old Mackinaw, in This church was, as I judge from a manuscript Relation , erected subsequent to the departure of Marquette from Mackinaw, and probably about The founding of the post of Detroit drew from Mackinaw the Christian Hurons and Ottawas, and the place became deserted.
Despairing of being able to produce any good among the few pagan Indians, and almost as pagan coureurs-de-bois who still lingered there, the missionaries solved to abandon the post, and set fire to their church in or. The history of his narrative and map are almost as curious as that of his body.
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We have seen that he transmitted copies to his superior, and went to his last mission. Frontenac had promised to send a copy to the government, and in all probability he did.
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At this moment the publication of the Jesuit Relations ceases; though not from choice on their part as the manuscript of the year '73 prepared for the press by Father Dablon, still exists; it could not have been from any difficulty on the part of the printer, as the announcement of the expedition to the Mississippi would have given it circulation, even though the journal itself were reserved for the next year.
To the French government then we must attribute the non-publication of further relations, the more so, as they neglected to produce the narrative of Marquette in their possession. The whole might have fallen into perfect oblivion, had not the narrative come into the hands of Thevenot who had just published a collection of travels; struck with the importance of this, he issued a new volume in , called Receuil de Voyages, in which the journal of Father Marquette as commonly known, appeared with a map of the Mississippi.
The narrative is evidently taken from a manuscript like that in my hands, in the writing of which I can see the cause of some of the strange forms which Indian names have assumed. The opening of the narrative was curtailed, and occasional omissions made in the beginning, few at the end. The map is so different from that which still exists in the hand-writing. Of the narrative itself, he says, "It is written in a terse, simple, and unpretending style.
The author relates what occurs, and describes what he sees without embellishment or display. He writes as a scholar, and as a man of careful observation and practical sense. There is no tendency to exaggerate, nor any attempt to magnify the difficulties he had to encounter, or the importance of his discovery.
In every point of view, this tract is one of the most interesting of those, which illustrate the early history of America.
Latin American Fiction and the Narratives of the Perverse
In spite of all this it was overlooked and nearly forgotten; all the writers connected with La Salle's expedition except the first edition of Hennepin, published in , speak of Jolliet's voyage as a fiction. Marquette they never mention;. As to the charges themselves, they are clearly refuted by Frontenac's despatches. Hennepin, in his Description de la Louisiane, p. Anastasius in Le Clercq p. Thus even his maligners admit that he was on the river, and without the despatches, without the force of its publication prior to La Salle's voyage, we need only weigh the respective writers by their works.
Meanwhile one of the copies, after having been prepared for publication by Father Claude Dablon, superior of the mission, with the introductory and supplementary matter in the form in which we now give it, lay unnoticed and unknown in the archives of the Jesuit college at Quebec. It did not even fall into the hands of Father Charlevoix when collecting material for his history, for he seems to have made little research if any into the manuscripts at the college of Quebec. A few years after the publication of his work, Canada fell into the hands of England, and the Jesuits and Recollects, as religious orders, were condemned, the reception of new members being positively forbidden.
The members of each order now formed Tontints, the whole property, on the death of the last survivor, to go to the British government, or to the law knows whom, if situated in the United States.
The last survivor of the Jesuits, Father Cazot, after beholding that venerable institution, the college of Quebec closed for want of professors, and Canada deprived of its only and Northern America of its oldest collegiate seat of learning, felt at last that death would soon close with him the Society of Jesus in Canada.
A happy forethought for the historic past induced him to wish to commit to other than to state hands, some objects and documents regarded as relics by the members of his society. Of these he made a selection, unfortunately too moderate and too rapid, and these papers he deposited in the Hotel Dieu, or hospital at Quebec, an institution destined to remain, as the nuns who directed it had not fallen under the ban of the government.
They continued in their hands from shortly before till , when the faithful guardians of the trust presented them to the Rev. Martin, one of the Jesuit fathers who returned in to the scene of the labors and sacrifices of their society. On the. This narrative is a very small quarto, written in a very clear hand, with occasional corrections, comprising in all, sixty pages.
Of these, thirty-seven contain his voyage down the Mississippi, which is complete except a hiatus of one leaf in the chapter on the calumet; the rest are taken up with the account of his second voyage, death and burials, and the voyage of Father Allouez. The last nine lines on page 60, are in the hand-writing of Father Dahlon, and were written as late as With it were found the original map in the hand-writing of Father Marquette, as published now for the first time, and a letter begun but never ended by him, addressed to Father Dablon, containing a journal of the voyage on which he died, beginning with the twenty-sixth of October, , and running down to the sixth of April.
The endorsements on it, in the same hand as the direction ascribe, the letter to Father Marquette; and a comparison between it, the written parts of the map, and a signature of his found in a parish register at Boucherville, would alone, without any knowledge of its history, establish the authenticity of the map and letter. After so extended a notice on Father Marquette, it would seem unjust to say nothing of his illustrious companion in his great voyage. It would be doubly interesting to give a full account of Jolliet, as he was a native of the country, but unfortunately our materials are scanty and our notices vague.
Neither his birthplace nor its epoch has, as far as the present writer knows, been ascertained. His education he owed to the Jesuit college of Quebec, where, unless I am mistaken, he was a class-mate of the first Canadian who was advanced to the priesthood. Jolliet was thus connected with the Jesuits, and apparently was an assistant in the college. After leaving them, he proceeded to the west to seek his fortune in the fur-trade.
Here he was always on terms of intimacy with the missionaries, and acquired the knowledge and experience which induced the government to select him as the explorer of the Mississippi.
Haïti, , livre bleu d'Haïti, blue book of Hayti
This choice was most agreeable to the missionaries, and he and Marquette immortalized their names. They explored the great river, and settled all doubts as to its course. On his return Jolliet lost all his papers in the rapids above Montreal, and could make but a verbal report to the government. This, however, he reduced to writing, and accompanied with a map drawn from recollection. On the transmission of these. Two years after his island was taken by the English fleet, and he himself, with his wife and mother-in-law, probably while attempting to reach Quebec, fell into the hands of Phipps, the English commander.
His vessel and property were a total loss, but his liberty he recovered when the English retired from the walls of Quebec. Of his subsequent history there are but occasional traces, and we know only that he died some years prior to Father Cladius Dablon came to Canada in , and was immediately sent to Onondaga, where he continued with but one short interval of absence till the mission was broken up in Three years after, he and the hardy Druilletes attempted to reach Hudson's bay, by the Saguenay, but were arrested at the sources of the Nekouba by Iroquois war-parties.
Mary's, visited Green bay, and reached the Wisconsin with Allouez, then returned to Quebec to assume his post as superior of all the Canada missions. This office he held with intervals for many years, certainly till , and he was still alive, but not apparently superior in the following year. As the head of the missions, he contributed in no small degree to their extension, and above all, to the exploration of the Mississippi, by Marquette.
He published the Relations of , and '72, with their accurate map of Lake Superior, and prepared for press those of '73 and '79, which still remain in manuscript, and the following narratives of Marquette and Allouez.
The period of his death is unknown. His writings are the most valuable collection on the topography of the northwest, which have come down to our days.
Father Marquette had long projected this enterprise, impelled by his ardent desire of extending the kingdom of Jesus Christ, and of making him known and adored by all the nations of that country. He beheld himself, as it were, at the door of these new nations, when, in , he was laboring at the mission of Lapointe du St. Esprit, which is at the extremity of the upper Lake of the Ottawas.
He even saw at times many of those new tribes, concerning whom he gathered all the information that he could. This induced him to make several efforts to undertake the enterprise, but always in vain; he had even given. In , the Comte de Frontenac, our governor and Mr.